To begin with, we will take a look at how our minds work. How we
evaluate circumstances, make decisions and form opinions. Why we think we are
right even when we are wrong. What’s the difference is between
self-consciousness and self-awareness.
Then we will examine how perceptions can be manipulated, for better or
for worse, in competitive work environments
How Our Minds Work
From Benjamin Franklin, through
Edgar Allen Poe to Jay Z, smart people have realized that you should “Believe
none of what you hear, and only half of what you see.”
Markus Aurelius said
"Everything we hear is an opinion, not a fact. Everything we see is a
perspective not the truth."
All this may sound cliché, but the
notion is supported by contemporary neuroscience. For a broader understanding
of the supporting science, please see the suggested reading at the end of this
The examples below are simple and
clearly make the point.
Believe what you hear?
Thinking Fast and Slow, by Daniel Kahneman
Here is a simple puzzle. Just listen to your intuition! The combined
cost of a racket and ball is $1.10. The racket costs one dollar more than the ball.
How much does the ball cost?
A number came to your mind. The
number, of course, is 10: 10¢. The beauty of this easy puzzle is that it evokes
an answer that is intuitive, appealing, and wrong. If the ball costs 10¢, then
the combined cost will be $1.20. Do the arithmetic and you will see!
$0.10 + $1.10 = $1.20; Remember the racket costs $1.00”more” than the ball!
answer is the ball costs 5¢. ($0.05 + $1.05 = $1.10)
Believe what you see?
Thinking Fast and Slow, by Daniel Kahneman
Have a look at
the picture of the three men and answer the question! Is the figure on the
right larger than the figure on the left?
Here again, the answer seems
obvious: the figure on the right is larger. But if you take a ruler or use your
fingers to measure them, you'll discover that the figures are all exactly the
same size. Your perception of their relative size is influenced by an illusion.
You believe you're looking at a 3-D image with depth and distance. But it's
really only a 2-D image on a flat screen. In the 3-D illusion, the figure on
the right is both much farther away and much larger than the figure on the
left. This clearly demonstrates how our brains tend to substitute what comes fast and easy for what's really there.
How about this?
on the Internet
blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd waht I was rdanieg. The phaonmneal
pweor of the hmuan mnid! Aoccdrnig to rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it
deosn’t mttaer inwaht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoatnt tihng
is taht the frist and lsat ltteer are in the rghit pclae. Tihs is bcuseae the
huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe.
The examples above were
intentionally selected because most of us tend to jump to the same wrong
conclusions. And the point that our brains can mislead us in some cases and
help us in others is pretty obvious.
life, people can see, hear and experience the same thing, but come to
completely different conclusions about what it means. That's because we tend to
draw conclusions based on information that is currently in our unconscious
mind. The unconscious mind never rests, even when we are sleeping. That is why
it is a good idea to postpone an important decision until you have had a
chance to "sleep on it".
is not that dark Freudian place you may have heard about. In healthy people, it
is a very active and creative center of thought that can help us to react
quickly when necessary or cause us to jump to wrong conclusions as seen in the
This fast thinking part of the brain is filled with both recent and
information. Like the special memory in your PC or tablet or smart
remembers the most recent websites you visited or people that you have
messages to lately or even the words you use a lot when you write. In
words, our unconscious contains information that has been reinforced
through repetition. Like kicking a can, typing without looking at the
speaking without thinking about the words you choose. Inherently,
our unconscious also contains memories of events and encounters that
emotional scars or happy memories. These can influence our perception
This function of the human mind is called "system 1" in Daniel
Kahneman's book Thinking Fast and Slow. Malcolm Gladwell calls it the "adaptive
unconscious" in his book Blink. It's often simply referred to as "what's on your
mind". It will be called memory cache" or just
"cache" (pronounced "cash") in this project. Since each
mind is unique and the information contained in its memory cache is
exclusive, the conclusions we draw about what we see and hear will not
necessarily be the same as that of a colleague or friend or even a spouse
We have all experienced situations where a friend or partner has read the same
book or saw the same film as we have, but came away with completely different
conclusions about the point the director or author was trying to make. After
discussing it, you may both change your opinion, or on the other hand, be more
convinced than ever about your original conclusion. When trivial things like
this happen to people who know and respect each other, it rarely leads to long
term resentment. But in competitive work environments, innocent differences of
perception can sow the seeds of resentment that lead to perpetual stress.
Wilbert Linnemans, founder of Human
Sense Consultation, exploits the fact that our self-image is never the same as
the image others have of us and vice versa. He explains how this difference in
perception creates a potential that can be compared to electrical voltage.
Electricity, when properly channeled, can be used to produce useful things like
light and heat. But if it gets out of control, it can burn the house down. In
competitive workplaces, personality potential can be the catalyst for creating
win-win situations like well-functioning teams and interdepartmental
collaboration. But if opposing perceptions become irreconcilable, it can turn a
pissing contest into a knife fight.
If you're like most people, you
spend a lot of time thinking about yourself. And you are the only living person
who sees yourself the way you do. In all likelihood, you wouldn't even
recognize the person who occupies the space reserved for you in someone else’s
Martha Graham said "What people
in the world think of you is really none of your business". I say; Make it
your business! Apply what you learn from the perceptions of others to become
less self-conscious and more self-aware!
is being uncomfortably aware of oneself as an object of the observation of
others. Self-Awareness is having a clear perception of your personality,
including strengths, weaknesses, insights, values and emotions. It helps you to
understand other people, how they perceive you, your attitude and your
responses in any given situation.
A practical example of how self-awareness is applied can be found in the column
"Conflict and Ego" published in the New York Times on February 6, 2015. In the column,
David Brooks made some
lucid comments about how he handles painful criticism from readers.
too psychologically damaging to read these comments as evaluations of my
intelligence, morals or professional skill. But if I read them with the
(possibly delusional) attitude that these are treasured friends bringing me
lovely gifts of perspective, then my eye slides over the insults and I can
usually learn something. The key is to get the question of my self-worth out of
the way — which is actually possible unless the insulter is really
that Brooks understood that the perceptions of others, even if they are hostile
and contrary to our own, can be valuable. They provide an opportunity to learn.
Of course in order to take advantage of these learning opportunities, a healthy
self-awareness and a modicum of humility are necessary.
Self-awareness also includes the understanding that emotion influences our
perception as much as the other 5 senses. This concept is highlighted
in the book Emotional Intelligence 2.0. Emotional intelligence or,
"EQ", is composed of two basic elements: personal competence and
social competence. Personal competence is your ability to gauge your emotions
and manage your behavior. Social competence is your ability to understand other
people’s moods, behavior and motives.
We have often heard and maybe even used the expression "I wasn’t thinking
straight." This used as an excuse to explain silly mistakes or bad
behavior like emotional outbursts that art intended to hurt someone or cause
embarrassment . Episodes like this occur when emotions like anger, envy or
humiliation take over and we lose our composure.
Whenever you see, hear or read something that would normally trigger a strong
emotional reaction, think of it as a wakeup call! Do not succumb to the kind knee-jerk
reactions mentioned above!
Uncontrolled emotional outbursts triggered by what someone does or says, hurt
in a number of ways. The perception of those present will be overshadowed by
the impression of immature and unprofessional behavior. It will be gossiped
about. The perpetrator will have the reputation of being unfit for
leadership or other positions that require polished interpersonal skills.
Theodore Roosevelt said. "If you could kick the person most responsible
for your trouble in the pants, you wouldn't be able to sit for a
If you want
people to take you seriously, they have to perceive you as a serious person.
And it is your responsibility to make sure that happens. Influencing perception
requires conscious effort. A basic understanding of how the subconscious mind
works is useful. Well practiced interpersonal skills coupled with a healthy
self-awareness are practical. But a pragmatic mindset is essential. What does
said "You can fool some of the people some of the time -- and that's
enough to make a decent living". It is easy to fool some of the people by
updating their memory cache with information that will lead them to
see things the way you want them to. This is why the use smoke & mirrors in
the work place is so effective. Influencing the perception of others can be as
innocent as blowing your own horn. In fact, "If you don't blow your own
horn, someone else will use it as a spittoon." as the One Minute
Manager admonished. You may have been taught
that “blowing your own horn” is bad. That showoffs and impostors have
to behave that way because they have nothing of any real value to offer. That
the contributions of honest hard working people speak for themselves. This may
be a legitimate perspective in a perfect world. But not in competitive work
Outstanding performance draws
attention. And every individual who pays attention will have a different
perspective. The boss may be happy because she feels
like she made a good decision when she hired you, which will make her look good
to her boss. An honest colleague may sincerely congratulate you but at the same
time be concerned because the light that’s shining on you isn’t shining on her.
An ambitious rival may feel threatened and try to influence the
perceptions of others to benefit herself, at your expense. This scenario is not far-fetched. The higher you rise in an organization, the
more intense the completion becomes.
It is your responsibility to be
aware of the perceptions, motives and emotions of the people around you! It’s
your responsibility to realize that honest hard work has to be underpinned by a
savvy understanding of how to project and protect the image you want others to
have of you
Occasions where smoke and mirrors
are employed to mislead and deceive are omnipresent. For example, loudly taking
credit for someone else's success, or cleverly shifting the blame for something
that went wrong. You will see this at meetings, hear it on conference calls or
read it in emails. If you believe that this kind of behavior is so obvious that
everyone will see through it and nobody will take it seriously, you may be
right. But the desired result of the one blowing the smoke will still be
achieved. The impression will be planted in the listener's cache! The skillful
manipulator knows that relentless repetition of a self -serving message, even
in the face of incredulous feedback, will cultivate the perception to the point
where it will fool some of the people. And that's enough to make a decent
living. Like the poet said, "If you
throw enough shit against the wall some of it will stick."
Please do not misunderstand! This is
not a battle cry to "Sally forth and deceive!" It’s an admonition to be astute,
and learn to deal with “smoke and mirrors” without getting hurt.
our perceptions are biased by influences lurking in our memory cache, we
might start to understand what Daryl Morey meant about not being able to
trust his own mind. We should always remember that differing perspectives, no
matter how eloquently or aggressively stated, present learning opportunities. For
example learning to develop the skill to turn emotional bombshells that are
triggered by what someone else says or does, into wake up calls, cues to take a
moment to compose ourselves before we react. This level of composure doesn’t come easy to
everyone. With some of us, it’s a skill that has to be consciously developed.
But in the world of Smoke and Mirrors, the ability to keep your composure in
difficult situations is by far the most potent skill you can have in our
As this theme
is developed from different angles throughout the project, you will learn how
to make this awareness part of your psyche; to store it in your short-term
memory ! You do this the same way you did it with every skill you have
ever acquired: practice; practice; practice. It has to start consciously, with
repeated cognitive effort, like learning to strike a ball with a golf club or
automatically smiling when your eyes meet someone else's. As studies of first
responders, pilots and astronauts have shown. In times of critical stress,
conscious analysis of a situation is replaced by quick subconscious processing
as these highly trained professionals draw on the skills they have perfected
through years of training. The more you practice, the less cognitive effort is
necessary and the skill gets stored bit-by-bit, byte-by-byte until it is
"d". Then you own it, for as long as you continue to use it
Here are a few points to take with
Embrace the fact that others see themselves, you, and the
Make it a habit not to judge, but to learn from the perceptions of others!
Don’t take yourself too seriously!
Fast and Slow,
by Daniel Kahneman;
Buddhism is True, Robert Wright;
Blink, by Malcolm Gladwell;
one Minute Manager, by Kenneth H. Blanchard and Spencer
Emotional Intelligence 2.0, by Travis Bradberry, Jean Greaves +1;
Undoing Project: A Friendship That Changed Our Minds, by Michael Lewis;